Degradation of agricultural land and declining soil fertility continue to be major threats to food security and sustainable development. Soil fertility depletion in smallholder farmers' holdings is the fundamental biophysical root cause of declining per capita food production in the Sub-Saharan region. This directly impacts on the quantity and quality of food that can be produced in the long term and has lasting environmental implications. Food insecurity has significant economic impacts, both directly to gross domestic product (GDP) and indirectly, through the wider effects of problems such as malnutrition. This book, therefore, provides a basic concept how to improve finger millet productivity through enhanced soil fertility management.