Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) counseling and testing provides an entry point to comprehensive HIV/AIDS management. In Africa, most women attending antenatal clinics are usually counseled and tested for HIV only once that is during the initial visit and yet there is chance that they could contract HIV later on in pregnancy. Moreover, the women could also be in window period at the time of initial testing and could eventually turn HIV positive. Failure to repeat the test therefore later on in pregnancy leaves a gap in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT). This book churns out first hand evidence of HIV incidence among erstwhile HIV negative pregnant women in Kakamega County - Kenya. The book also looks at factors that influence the decisions of the women to retest for HIV. The recommendations from this book provide practical solutions to governments and agencies in developing nations and the world at large by helping the policy makers craft strategies to curb Mother to Child Transmission of HIV.