The incidental capture of sea turtles in marine trawl fishing has been identified as a major source for their large-scale mortalities worldwide. A shrimp trawl fishery study was conducted in the coastal waters of Orissa, India, from November 2001 to March 2002; 76 trawls in water of 6–35 fathoms resulted in the capture of 26 olive ridley turtles(Lepidochelys olivacea). Most turtle captures occurred within 5 km of the shoreline and at a depth of less than 10 fathoms, emphasizing the need for greater protection of these nearshore habitats. Data revealed a strong relationship between tow time and mortality of turtles. A total number of 76 trawling efforts were carried out between 6–35 fathoms between November 2001 to March 2002, which resulted in the capture of 26 Lepidochelys olivacea. An estimate has been made to extrapolate the number of turtles drowned annually during the nesting season. Of the three stratified study zones, estimates were higher in the Debi zones with 2,439, followed by the Gahirmatha zone with an estimate of 1,254, and lastly, the Paradip zone, with an estimate of 1,086 turtles.