Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health problem, with greater burden and prohibitive cost of care in developing countries. Damage of the kidneys has serious implications for systemic functions, growth and human existence. Irreversible damage that compromises the ability of the kidneys to sustain bodily functions, normal growth and life as occurs in end stage kidney disease poses great challenges of kidney replacement strategies and other management modalities. Fortunately, damage to kidneys can be prevented by simple screening and early identification during a visit to your family doctors. This book documents findings of a study conducted among patients attending a Family Practice clinic in Nigeria who were screened for leakage of small amount of proteins (microalbumin) in their urine. Early detection of this abnormality led to the use of appropriate interventions which reversed the progression of the problem to kidney failure.