India is among the World’s top twelve mega-biodiversity nations and stands quite high in the wealth of the total number of living species. It contains about 20% of the World’s biodiversity on 2% of the earth surface. Its rich flora of medicinal plants is being used for Aryurvedic, Unani and Siddha medical practices since ancient times and is being exported for medicine for allopathic preparations. It is an important resource of food and livelihoods of the millions of rural people of India.Due to climate change and degradation of forest land, many of the plant and animal species are vulnerable or on the brink of extinction. Many of them would vanish without knowing them. This book covers all aspects of biodiversity for welfare of the human generations to come and is an important source of information on biodiversity of India for sustainable development.