In spite of India’s rapid rise as a research and development (R&D) hub in recent years, researchers have not kept pace with the phenomenon and currently there are only a handful of works concerning India’s R&D. While the literature on global R&D shows the government’s significance in driving a country’s R&D growth, scant efforts have been made to understand the Indian government’s role in the context. The author addresses this scholarly gap through examining the actions taken by the Indian government and investigating as to how they have impacted the R&D. The author categorises the government’s role into four specific faactors and denotes them as government-initiated drivers: S&T policies, public R&D, education, and infrastructure. Having identified the deficit areas where the Indian government requires further improvement, the author lays out alternative policies that will facilitate India to move forward with greater R&D success. The book is exploratory in nature and drawn upon systematic synthesis of data from 95 course materials. The findings are invaluable to the research and academic communities, government and policymaking agencies, and corporate and consulting executives.