This book diachronically examines the interactions among the political actors in Boranaland (Gadaa vs. Qaalluu, Gadaa vs. central governments and Qaalluu vs. central governments) on the one hand and the impacts of the interactions on the overall Borana culture on the other hand. In other words, it describes how the Borana society has been administered by the two forms of government systems (traditional and modern)since the era of Emperor Menilek II. Prior to the Abyssinians'' advent into the Oromoland in general and the Borana in particular, the Oromo people administered their affairs solely by their own indigenous politico-juridical institutions, particularly by the Gadaa system. Once the Abyssinians established their colonial rule over the Boranaland the two government systems, modern state and Gadaa indigenous system, began to function the former relegating the latter. Consequently, Abyssinian culture and administrative system disintegrated the roles and status of the hitherto cohesive indigenous institutions, Gadaa and Qaalluu, but with changing roles and responsibilities under different Ethiopian governments.