Climate change is one of the most humanity’s pressing challenges in 21st century. So far, adaptation has been seen as a viable option for responding effectively and equitably with anticipated negative impacts of climate change. It is unquestionable fact that local people have a rich understanding of their resource base and are experts at adapting to changes over time. Over centuries local communities in many less developed countries and Tanzania in particular through their Indigenous Knowledge (IK) have built up knowledge about changes in their environment and developed novel ways of adapting to these changes. IK has to a large extent provided local communities with the ability to survive and produce under risk due to, amongst others, climate change, environmental constraints, food insecurity and incomplete market structure. In light of the above situations, a better understanding of the way local communities have adjusted with past and present climate change and variability is indispensable. This book, therefore, sets out to contribute to the emerging body of knowledge on IK in climate change perspective particularly on its role in adaptation to climate change and variability.