This book investigates the Brunca and the Teribe, two indigenous groups in Costa Rica, and their response to a proposed hydropower development on their territories. The Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (ICE) started the first attempt in order to extract the hydropower resources on the indigenous territory in 1970 with the Boruca – Cajón Project. However, this project stagnated and today the Proyecto Hidroelélectrico El Diquís (PHED) is the current alternative of the same project, affecting Téribe territory. A conflict?line can be drawn between the Téribe fighting against the PHED, and those in favour of the plans. The aim of this study has been to investigate the resistance against the hydropower development in the indigenous communities and their arguments for fighting the project.