This book presents a general description how Rivers polluted by in industries wastewater discharge in developing countries like Ethiopia by taking the case of the second most severely polluted Borkena River at Kombolcha in the country following Akaki River at capital city Addis Ababa. Kombolcha is one of the few towns in Ethiopia with a relatively greater number of large-scale manufacturing plants including Textile Factory, Meat Processing Factory, Tannery, Brewery Factory, Steel Product Industry and Flour Factory. On top of this, the town is selected to be an industrial town by Amhara National Regional State of Ethiopia, which indicates the industrial development and its associated pollution risk will increase in the future. The existing industries have been discharging their wastes into the surrounding environment, in particular to the near by river (Mainly Borkena river).This Book deals on the current pollution status of the Borkena River by these available industries. The output from the book is to understand how pollution affects the ecological characteristics of the River by industrial waste water discharges for further affirmative action by decision makers for similar cases.