The use of Life Table method in analyzing infant and child mortality is more robust and dynamic than the conventional method. It takes into account the censored data for the computations yielding unbiased probability estimates, which is not possible with the conventional method of mortality calculations. The study examined the pattern, levels, trends of and differentials in infant and child survival in Bhutan by selected demographic, socioeconomic, and proximate background characteristics of the mother. It primarily used the life table technique; but for the purpose of studying the differences in rates yielded through two different approaches, estimates were also made using the conventional measures. The life table method is a technique which is commonly applied with event-oriented data which offers a complete event history of an individual over some observed time span yielding information about the exact duration until events. This book demonstrates how Life Table Technique is applied in studying infant mortality, child mortality and under-five mortality in Bhutan using the data acquired from National Health Survey conducted in 2000.