Recently, questions on effects of home environmental variables, family characteristic backgrounds and the ultimate intellectual achievement of the learner have been raised as the subject of debate among many researchers and educational educationists. By the 1990s a serious gap was also noted in research on the cognitive performance of learners presumed to be operating at the Piagetian formal operations stage of cognitive development. This book endeavours to provide an insight into the influence of four home environmental variables namely family size, parental schooling, home language and socio-economic status. Each predictor is examined, basing on children`s responses to modified Piagetian formal operations task. It unveils the events and activities in African urban homes covering how these affect cognition during learning. Both educators and parents/caregivers need to work collaboratively to minimise or eradicate obstacles that may militate against effective cognitive achievement of children. Educators should find ways of perpetuating good environmental practices for the benefit of all children, no matter what their status is.