Mining is known to be associated with numerous Environmental and Health challenges due to the generation of toxic by-products including Heavy Metals which are released into the Environment. This is mostly under controlled and monitored circumstances with supporting legislation guarding legal Mining Operations. River Bonsa is the main source of drinking water in the Tarkwa area and yet illegal small scale mining activities (galamsey) are done in this river. Heavy metals and Chemicals used in the extraction of Precious Minerals (especially gold), such as mercury are released into soil, ground and surface water (Bonsa River) and hence, the community water sources are polluted. Even though the Bonsa River is treated and distributed to households in Tarkwa area as tap water, most of the surrounding villages are not connected to this water supply. In most cases due to ignorance and lack of education or limited options, people fail to subject water from these rivers and streams to boiling and distillation. This makes them susceptible to water borne diseases, such as diarrhoea and other long term effects.