Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most leading staple food crops in the world. The world is facing many different security problems in the 21st century. Food is one of them. Among them, the significance of rice is supreme. In 2025 the demand of rice globally will be 880 million ton which is 70% more than present production. But production is not increasing accordingly due to lack of high yielding early maturing rice. Therefore, to fill up the gap between production and demand, we need to increase cropping intensity nearly 300%. Short duration rice is an important aspect to increase cropping intensity and considered an indirect way to save water. Traditional varieties are no longer adequate to meet up this demand. This book, therefore, provides a new metric of success for developing short duration high yielding rice varieties. Here I have selected some special rice lines that are early maturing as well as high yielding. The analysis will be helpful for young researcher and plant breeder to know the morphological and molecular variation and to find out the early maturing lines. Moreover, this book will be helpful to professionals who are directly related to plant Breeding.