Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important food legume cultivated in many parts of the world covering Asia and Oceania, Middle East, Southern Europe and Central and South America. It constitutes a major source of dietary protein, starch, minerals and vitamins for many poor families especially in Africa. The cowpeas grown in different parts of the world vary widely in seed colour and type, and preferences change from region to region. These varying preferences necessitate the need to develop cowpea varieties with different characteristics as no single variety can be suitable for all regions. The need to have a better understanding of the genetics of pigmentation in cowpea therefore becomes essential. This book presents a holistic approach to the understanding of the genetics of pigmentation in cowpea with a view to elucidating the inheritance pattern of pigmentation in plant, flower and seed. This would be useful to geneticists and breeders in developing suitable strategies for the breeding of cowpea varieties that suit the varying needs of consumers.