Recently, the innovation activities have rapidly been developed within small and medium- sized enterprises all around the world, after a long period where innovation-based activites were undertaken by larger enterprises only. The topic of innovation and economic performance is of greater interest for enterpreuneurs, organizations, and policy makers; mainly for the reason that Innovation is considered as one of the key conditions for long-run economic growth. The importance of Innovation is, finally, taking its place in the center of the modern economy. However, in the Arab Region generally, and in Algeria specifically, both research and application are still in their nascent stage; moreover, data on innovation activities are missing from the existent literature. This book contains both Macro and Micro data on innovation from the Algerian economy, as well as international comparisons between the National Innovation Systems of North African countries.