Protected areas (PAs) represent a key global strategy in biodiversity conservation. In tropical developing countries, the management of PAs is a great challenge since peoples' life and livings particularly ethnic communities entirely dependent on various forest resources. This study tries to explore the indigenous knowledge of hill farming system and role and scope of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in sustaining livelihoods of Khasia and Tripura ethnic communities living in and around Lawachara National Park, Bangladesh and analyzed local attitudes and perceptions on biodiversity conservation, farming and exploitation of NTFPs. Therefore, the book would be help to the academician, researcher, agencies and policy makers by improving knowledge on forest dependent livelihoods along with local perceptions and factors influencing change. This book might be helpful for generating new guidelines for the better management of PAs through involving each forest dependent communities by providing them legal rights to forest utilization up to a sustainable limit for the positive results of both local livelihoods and PAs.