The potential of Agroforestry (AF) systems for sustainable rural livelihood has widely been demonstrated, but the challenge of persistently low agricultural productivity has impacted negatively on farm incomes and food security in Kenya. Farmers have not been exposed to AF technologies with tangible economic benefits from enriched fallows like artemisia shrubs that have medicinal value as an intercrop with maize. This book describes the concept of Intercropping maize and artemisia as an AF practice suitable for application by small to medium scale farmers and other stakeholders in rural development. Several parameters are used comparatively to evaluate yield advantages from selected spacing regimes,so as to form the basis for recommending suitable planting patterns depending on levels of intensification desired by the farmers. Intercropping in this context demonstrates production for income and food security after manipulating component interactions and value addition to respective crops.This concept is a synthesis of invaluable inferences drawn from diverse fields of Botany, Agriculture and other Biophysical and Social sciences to contribute towards the evolving field of AF.