Ever wondered why countries, such as Nigeria, rich in petroleum deposits have long fuel queues? Have you also ever wondered why the United States of America with its huge petroleum reserves, imports petroleum? If so, this book is for you as it explains why. The research done in this book, seeks to show that all regions of the world have their peculiar energy security challenges, and that primary energy rich countries are not immune from energy security problems, if the right legal and regulatory frameworks and policies are not in place. This book seeks to support the above argument by highlighting the energy security situation of different parts of the world. In particular, the book highlights the pathetic situation of energy rich third world countries, using Nigeria as a case study. Nigeria, though rich in oil and gas, lacks energy (gas in particular) supply for its domestic use. This has been the case because, for a very long time, the proper legal, regulatory framework and policies were not in place. Nigeria, therefore, has hydrocarbon reserves but lacks availability for domestic use. In conclusion, this book identifies potential solutions to the problem of energy insecurity.