This book is a study of the conflict situation in Africa from a legal perspective. Sierra Leone, a victim of the situation (1990-2000), provides a reflection of legal issues that emerge in a typical civil war. As an internal armed conflict, glaring questions emerge: Is the Geneva Conventions on Laws of War and Protocols applicable in an internal armed conflicts situation? Can human rights violations be the guiding principle of intervention? What is the position of human rights in instances of internal armed conflicts? Are there any international principles to justify rebellion or belligerence against a legitimately elected government? Consequently, the author argues that these conflicts take place at the backdrop of immense break up of law and order. He further observes that under such circumstances, constitutions and penal codes are inapplicable owing to declaration of emergency. Finally, Bittok identifies the scope of existing lex scripta that can legally be employed to try violators of rules of internal armed conflicts. The author endears to International law practitioners, researchers, and scholars who often grapple with culpability of parties in an internal armed conflict.