This book describes international, European and Belarusian legislation on alternative civilian service. The author analyses best legal practices and propose a draft of the Belarusian law on alternative service. The manuscript composes of three chapters. The first part looks in history of conscientious objections towards civilian service in the United Nations (Human Rights Committee, Human Rights Council). The author’s writings based primarily on the UN legislations – Charters, Resolutions, Declarations, etc. Legislation of the Council of Europe and the judicial practice of the European Court of Human Rights are drawing up the second part of the book. The last section is totally about Belarusian situation – legal analysis, judicial practice and precedents, and the current situation on this problem in Belarus. The author suppose that this book will be helpful to everyone who are interested in human rights issues, especially in the religious and conscientious rights and the right to choose civilian service instead of military service.