Though a number of evaluative studies are conducted every year, either at the behest of the donors or on the initiatives of the implementing agencies, evidences on the impact of International NGOs'' interventions are surprisingly meager. Theoretically and methodologically there is great potential in the study of INGOs. A careful analysis can not only help to extend this relatively new area of people oriented research but can also contribute to developing new insights on development issues and models. Keeping these considerations in mind, these case study evaluations attempt to identify the competencies and roles of the leading INGOs operating in Orissa, the eastern state of India. Many discussions of INGOs have tended towards over- optimistic assessment of their role as agents of grassroots change and development. One reason for over-optimism is probably the paucity of empirically grounded assessments of their performance. Clearly then this book envisaged to look more closely at the features and roles of the INGOs through a theoretically defined framework.