In recent years, protection of Traditional Knowledge (TK) in general and Traditional Medical Knowledge (TMK) in particular has become hot agenda in many international fora. Ethiopia is one of the leading countries in promoting the slogan of protection. Several proposals have been made and put in place within and outside the IPR system to protect TMK. This book, reviews and analyzes different international agreements and initiatives, and examines the legal environments and policies of Ethiopia relevant to the protection of TMK. Considering the current situation of Ethiopia, its policy priorities and the experiences of some countries, the book tries to unveil the inherent and possible problems of existing and potential modalities of protection, especially in achieving the goal Ethiopia wants to secure from protection of TMK. As the book elucidate these imperative issues of the time, it would be expedient to legal practitioners, law students, policy makers or any one else who is interested in the subject matter of TMK.