Intervertebral discs are the shock absorbers of vertebrae and also contribute to flexibility of the spine. Deformation or degradation of these structures could cause pain, nerve compression or gait differences. When the condition gets severe, affecting the cartilage and the bone, surgery must take place to restore the health. Intervertebral disc replacement is an option for the surgery. Critical design parameters, materials analysis, proposed design and testing framework for a prosthetic intervertebral disc are described in this book in a combined medical-engineering perspective.