There has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of chronic renal failure (CRF) during the past decades. Chronic kidney disease has become worldwide public health problem. More than one million individuals in the world are on maintenance dialysis, a number that is estimated to double in the next decade. Access to dialysis is significantly different between developed and developing nations. In this Book the author is emphasizing the need for a robust rather than advanced sophisticated but expensive technology for the management of chronic renal failure.