The rapid growth of the 20th century uncontrolled post-war industry, following the growth of population, resulted in serious pollution of the air, water and earth. Almost 40% of the pollution is due to the building industry and traffic. As shown by outstanding Harvard and MIT Professors, any uncontrolled development of industry and traffic will result in conflicts with the global principle of limits in all fields of the environment, geological resources of building materials, capacity of land, etc., unless adequate measures are taken to ensure sustainable development in the design, execution, use of buildings and in traffic. The solution requires innovative concepts of engineering and architectural education. This trend calls for focusing the design philosophy and building technology on environmentally compatible structures (ECS) and the need to build up a modern concept of the theory of ECS. The aim of the book is to suggest the theoretical fundamentals of ECS, compatible with natural principles and the experience of nature. They have to ensure sustainable design of ECS, corresponding with the present economic system and legislative provisions.