Urban conservation has become an essential tool that can help in confronting the challenges facing today’s cities. The decline in the quality of the urban environment in our cities, the prevalence of rundown urban areas and low quality architectural products, and the decline of our cities’ distinctive identity are some of such challenges. This book explores the various theoretical backgrounds on urban conservation, as well as the various arguments on its ability in confronting present-day urban challenges. Urban conservation is a broad concept that shelters a variety of subsidiary conservation interventions, such as the restoration and the adaptive re-use of historic buildings to alternative functions. The implications of the various conservation interventions vary according to the official perceptions of such measures, which in turns differ from one country to the other. This book previews the various perceptions of the conservation interventions, which are officially adopted by some European countries, the United States of America and Egypt. Finally, this book is based on the author’s academic experience and visits to some European countries.