The subject of this work is the numerical investigation of dynamical systems. The aim is to provide approaches for the localization of several topological structures which are of vital importance for the global analysis of dynamical systems, namely, periodic orbits, the chain recurrent set, repellers, attractors and their domains of attraction as well as stable, unstable and connecting manifolds. The techniques introduced do not require any a priori knowledge about a system, and can be applied to a wide range of dynamical systems. The proposed methods contribute not only to the direct investigation and simulation of specific dynamical processes but also to the research in the field of dynamical system theory in general. This is due to the fact that progress in theory depends to a large extent on the observation and investigation of phenomenons. These phenomenons can often only be revealed, analyzed and verified by numerical experiments. The presented numerical case studies give some concrete examples for the application of the methods. Hereby, the dynamical models are taken from different fields of scientific research, like geography, biology, meteorology, or physics.