Iron deficiency anaemia causes maternal deaths, decreased physical work and earning capacity. The study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the iron status of lactating and non-lactating mothers in Makongeni, Thika District,Kenya. This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey in a health clinic whereby an interview schedule was used to collect data. Data were analysed using SPSS, MS Excel and dietary analysis software (Food metres UK 7). The 24 hour dietary recall and food frequency was used to determine the dietary iron intake. The study revealed that lactating mothers had haemoglobin levels ranging from 7-14 g/dl, while the Non-lactating mothers had 9-15 g/dl. On average, lactating mothers had a lower mean (12.1 +1.1g /dl)than non-lactating mothers (12.4 +1.1g/dl). Mild anaemia was prevalent in 33% of the lactating mothers, while 17 % had moderate anaemia and 1% severe anaemia compared to 29% mild anaemia and 15% moderate anaemia in non-lactating mothers after altitude adjustment. This is an indicator for need to design a comprehensive intervention which should include nutritional and health strategies to improve the iron status of this population at risk.