In Iran, the inequality seen in the education system is also prevalent in the wider society. In addition to identifying inequalities in education, a situation analysis conducted by UNICEF Tehran pointed also to inequality among rural, urban, and nomadic populations and ethnic/linguistic minorities (UNICEF, 1993). Much research has been done about the situation of educated girls in Iran. The situation of boys, however, has not received as much attention. For the first time in the history of Iran, the number of illiterate men is higher than that of women (Khaz Ali, 2010). This situation requires investigation. My thesis will critically examine the problem of school dropout rates of boys in Iran.