The performance of a turning process depends on various machining conditions which affect the surface quality achieved on the component, the tool life, cutting zone temperature and the metal removal rate. The turning operation produces the components, which have critical features that require specific surface finish. The wear rate of the single point cutting tool determines the cost of the process and also the quality of the component. The cutting zone temperature has detrimental effect on both the surface finish on the component and also the tool life. The turning process depends on a number of variables which include the machine tool, tool material and geometry, work material and cutting conditions. The variations in each of the output parameter for a variation in significant input parameter are analyzed graphically in this chapter. Detailed discussions on the machinability of the work material considered, the capability of the tool materials, the significance of the tool geometry and the influence of cutting parameters on turning process are described.