Iodine deficiency is the world''s most significant cause of preventable brain damage and mental retardation and one of the easiest of the major nutritional deficiencies as well, which can be corrected by daily consumption of adequately iodized salt. Almost 2.2 billion people worldwide and around 200 million in India are at risk of the effects of iodine deficiency, which affects all the stages of human growth and development. Urban slum population constitutes the most neglected, under served section of the society and women by and large, quietly bear the brunt of all the disadvantages. Iodine deficiency is one of the major nutritional problems among these women, which is further aggravated by their ignorance, lower literacy, poverty and continuous trauma of neglect by their family members etc. Thus, an attempt has been made through this monograph which is based on the research work undertaken in the urban slums of Cuttack city, Orissa, India to explore various aspects regarding iodine status of women in reproductive age group. The analysis of the findings throws light on this very important issue which must be dealt with a sensible and pragmatic approach to curb this menace.