The association of Muslims with Indian Sub-continent is spread over ten centuries – most of the part as rulers. Somehow, the Muslim community in India was not assimilated as was the case with earlier religions, schools of thought and creeds like Buddhism and Jainism. At the advent of the rule of the British East India Company, and later, the British Crown, the sociological, political and economic conditions of the Muslim community in India altogether changed overnight – they become ruled instead of the ruling class of the Indian subcontinent. The adversarial relations with the ruling British and majority Hindu community placed Muslims in a peculiarly disadvantageous state. How Muslims reacted to this situation? This book is an effort to analyze the so-called “Muslim issue” in the Indian subcontinent in the mid of the twentieth century.