Spiranthes romanzoffiana is a native Irish orchid species with an uneven amphi-Atlantic distribution. The species is widespread in North America. In Europe, populations are confined to the west and north east of Ireland and to the Hebridean islands in western Scotland. Up until recently no reliable data existed on the species ecology,reproductive biology, pollination requirements or genetic diversity within Ireland. The genetic-geographic relationship between Irish,Scottish and North American populations to date was also unknown. This research attempts to answer these questions through a range of rigorous scientific methods. Threats to the species persistance. e.g.land use changes and over grazing were also examined.Results from this study have fed directly into a number of local practical conservation measures throughout Ireland. This has resulted in the discovery of new populations and the successful conservation of previously known populations. The research concludes with a series of recommendations aimed at securing the long term survival of Spiranthes romanzoffiana in Ireland.