With climate change leading to rising uncertainties in rain fed agriculture, investment in irrigation agriculture is increasingly critical in countries like Ethiopia. Even with the growing scarcity of land; water resources and the rising costs of large scale irrigation projects, there are many opportunities to enhance productivity by revamping the existing schemes and expanding small-scale irrigation.The book analyzes the significance of small-scale irrigation agriculture and income diversification to improve the status of household’s food security. The findings of the study depict that irrigation increased agricultural production and households’ annual income; improved farmers’ access to improved farm inputs and reduce dependence on erratic rain-fed agriculture. It also improved household’s food supply through own production and entitlement to food by increasing the purchasing power of the households. The study has drawn the lessons that the development of irrigation farming and diversification of household’s sources of income have its own contribution to alleviate the problems of food insecurity and poverty, if properly managed.