Nuclear power contributes to the economic development of the country it is built in by providing electricity with relatively inexpensive prices than that of other energy sources. However, the construction costs of nuclear power plants are usually very expensive and nuclear power may pose a potential threat for human health, security and the environment. Different arguments are discussed in this book on whether and how nuclear power plants contribute to sustainability and the citizens’ well-being. Furthermore, major recommendations are suggested to the policy makers and governments whether the ones already having nuclear power plants on their territories or the ones contemplating to build nuclear power plants. This book is written for large audience of readers including but not limited to: governmental advisors, politicians, national energy policy planners, nuclear industry leadership, international organizations working on energy security and radiation protection, academics and researchers, students, public policy, and urban planners.