An integrated approach to island conservation was applied on Pitcairn Island, to assist with the development of informed conservation programmes. Initial field studies collected data on the flora and vegetation communities found on the island. Non-native species were found throughout, but native species dominated in the remoter valleys on the south of the island. Species on the Pitcairn group are most closely related to the Austral group of Islands, and sit within the South-east Polynesian biogeographic region. A conservation assessment showed that 63% of the native flora was threatened on Pitcairn, while 22% was globally threatened. Threats to the flora were found to be through invasive species competition, habitat loss and loss of genetic diversity within species. Detailed population genetic assessments were carried out where genetic diversity data was needed for developing species conservation plans. The collated data were then combined to identify areas which could be successfully selected as reserve areas to conserve the largest number of rare species and native vegetation communities, without impinging on the activities and needs of the islanders.