This research provides evidence to suggest that despite many reforms to legislation, policy and training, in an Australian context, there has been limited improvement in the manner by which police officers respond to complaints of rape and treat victim/survivors. This research provides insight into a police organisation that is rarely open to scrutiny, and shows that when a woman reports a rape to police, she is less likely to be believed if, for example, she has been raped by someone familiar to her. The perceptions of women who have experienced rape regarding the criminal justice response to rape, the perceptions of support workers from Centres Against Sexual Assault (CASAs) on the criminal justice response to rape, police officers'' perceptions of the manner in which rape is dealt with by police, and the perceptions of potential jurors regarding rape were gained. In response to these findings, suggestions for improvements are recommended. Ultimately, this research illustrates that in 2009 in Australia, women who report rape are subject to considerable uncertainty regarding whether they will receive justice or judgement.