Population structure and genetic demography occupy an important place in biological anthropology since the perpetuation of a species has direct bearing with its reproductive success. India provides a unique opportunity to take up such studies as she possesses various population groups (tribes and castes) that differ widely on the basis of ethnicity, language, religion, region and endogamy. In Karnataka state the population genetic variability is little known and so far no systematic and comprehensive study has been done among the Kaniyas a scheduled tribe population of Karnataka, India. In view of the above the authors have made an in-depth study to assess the demographic, serological and somatometric variations among the Kaniyas of Karnataka. This book will be of interest to faculty members, researchers and students of biological anthropology.