So far, various efforts have been made by the government and private sector to provide primary education in Kenya.However, evidence persist that performance in public schools is poorer than in private primary schools. This book presents the results of a research investigating the factors influencing Kenya Certificate of Primary Education performance among public and private primary schools in Central division, Kirinyaga district. The book provides insight that there is a significant difference in KCPE performance between public and private primary schools in central division. The roles played by parents differed according to the type of the school. Professional advice for teachers was in favour of public schools. In the school environment, teachers and pupils expectations differed according to types of schools attended. The publication will be useful to policy makers and educationist in the efforts to improve KCPE performance in all primary schools in Kenya.