Biomedical research with human research participants is based on a fundamental moral commitment to promote human health, advance the goal of science and protect human dignity and well-being. Advances in medicine have been made possible through health care or biomedical research as well as scientific experimentation on animal and human subjects. Health research is therefore critical to understanding disease processes/health events and develops medicine. The ultimate goal of research is the improvement of health of the individual and of society at large. However, to be meaningful, research must protect human participants from harm and ensure accruable benefits, as well as respect for their dignity. In recent times, there has been a tremendous international collaboration in health research between the developed and developing countries due to the heavy disease burden, high poverty levels and paucity of health facilities and treatment options in developing countries. As a developing country, Nigeria must therefore appreciate and establish a system that ensures that human participants in research are protected from potential exploitation, injury, and harm.