Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI, H5N1) is currently a global threat and public health concern. The H5N1 virus, infection in humans is very serious when it occurs; so far, more than half of people reported infected have died. Such a pandemic would be potentially devastating in its impact on human lives and sustainable development. If H5N1 viruses gain the ability for efficient and sustained transmission among humans, an influenza pandemic could result, with potentially high rates of illness and death throughout the globe. H5N1 mutates rapidly and has a documented propensity to acquire genes from viruses infecting other animal species. Its ability to cause severe disease in humans has now been documented. A human pandemic would be particularly catastrophic in developing countries where living conditions and malnutrition are likely to make people more vulnerable, health services are weak and vaccines and antivirals would be beyond reach. The disease has a potential risk for public health as human cases are already been reported. The level of knowledge in relation to HPAI is extremely vital because of their increased risk of getting the infection and transmission.