The overall objective of this elaboration, was to analyze the processes of the commercialization of knowledge and technology transfer, as well as to examine the most important opportunities and obstacles to effective commercialization in Poland. Within the framework of this study, an attempt to characterize the terms on knowledge, technology and innovation, as well as the analysis of the connections between them is presented. Subsequently, the notion of the academic entrepreneurship, as well as the notion of intellectual property protection and its significance in the business practice is analyzed. Afterwards, the Poland’s research and development performance is evaluated. In the last part, the focus is applied to the business environment and institutions supporting the innovative initiatives and academic entrepreneurship. The presented study provides a comprehensive analysis of the commercialization and technology transfer processes and presents current statistics on the research and development sector and business environment institutions in Poland.