Despite a great deal of research work on lactic acid fermentation in the past, the production of lactic acid from pineapple waste fermentation using immobilized cells has yet to be investigated. This book provides broad coverage of topics including fermentation process, lactic acid industry, microbial technology, pineapple industry, cell immobilization and kinetic modelling. A systematic experimental design based on the full factorial method has been employed to identify the significant factors affecting the lactic acid production. It involves evaluate of mathematical models to describe predicting lactic acid production. The optimization module of the Design-Expert® software was utilized to search for optimal value of the process variables. The analysis should help for all budding researchers or postgraduate degrees, and should be especially useful to professional in the biotechnology, scientists, engineers, academicians or anyone else who may consider research and development.