Inherited from the colonization, then defended by African Unity Organization(AUO)in 1963, by virtue of the principle of the uti possidetis juris, the Lake Chad is a communication route very important in the Chadian Basin. In 1964, was born the Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC) in Fort- Lamis, (N'Djamena), capital of Chad to confirm the border character of this lake between Chad, Nigeria, Cameroon and Niger. The lake is the vastest endoréic basin of the world with 2.381.635 km2, which is 8 % of the surface of the African continent. The concerned countries are: Algeria, Cameroon, Niger, Nigeria, Central African Republic, Libya, Chad and Sudan. The Lake Chad is subdivided into several more or less cut natural units:the desert northern region, the alluvial basins.The Chadian basin is also subdivided into several more or less cut natural units:the desert northern region,the alluvial ponds and the massifs.The basin hydrological active concerns only the south party.The river system is essentially constituted by the system Logon-Chari,mounts Mandara and by Komadougou Yobe.The lake presents specificities which are appropriate for him:a rich and diversified patrimoine but,which is at risk.