Mountain people are among the world’s poor and face a number challenges since they inhabit a fragile ecosystem. Mountainous areas are characterized by limited land resources, marginal agricultural conditions, isolation, scanty equipment, and remoteness. However due to good climate and relatively high productivity Uganda’s mountainous areas covering 25% of the land area are heavily populated by peasants who depend directly on the environment for livelihood and survival. This book presents how land use practices of local people who inhabit the Rwenzori massif impact on the mountain ecology. Evidence shows that local people have cleared steeper slopes mainly for agriculture and construction of buildings. Their actions have caused erosion, mass wasting, land fragmentation and introduction of alien plants. However, massive immigration and political instability in the region are also to blame for curtailed conservation efforts. The book argues that since many local resource management groups seem to have arisen spontaneously, important is to hold discussions with them and formulate a joint way forward. Above all traditional society structures could indicate the most effective way to proceed.