This Book is about land use dynamics in areas undergoing population increase. The study was undertaken to clarify how an increasing population interacted with the physical environment in Eastern Province, Rwanda. This part of the country was of particular interest as it included established settlements as well as areas that were newly-settled in the aftermath of the 1994 Genocide. The study explores land use dynamics and land cover changes in areas with rapid population increase. The research showed that the areas under study have witnessed an increased population putting increased pressure on farming land in both old and newly-settled areas. Land scarcity has driven intensification of cropping and excessive grazing. Cultivated areas have expanded at the expense of uncultivated vegetation cover. In light of national farming and environmental policies under implementation, farmers expect more response to their concerns, enabling them to improve arable farming and/or cattle species. A more encouraging conclusion was that supporting mixed farming may be a promising solution to increase farm production and protect the environment.