This study compares between the most important African-American Archetypes through a detailed analysis of Langston Hughes’s philosophy of self-acceptance ( 1902-1967) and Cullen’s self-detraction (1903-1946). The study consists of an introduction, five chapters, the first four of which are concerned with an analysis of the poetry. The last surveys their prose and drama. This is followed by a conclusion.Ch. I relates the identity dilemma felt by African-Americans with regard to the call for négritude and traces African archetypes through analyzing the maternal image of Africa. .Ch. II introduces strain in race relations because of the identity dilemma referred to in the previous one.Chapter III analyzes protest-related poems and shows to what extent each poet interacts with the problems of his society and finally proves that Hughes had indeed long been accredited the poet of the black people.Chapter IV discusses the two concepts of love and death and how they intermingle to show the dilemma of African-American people who are caught between two fires: hope and despair.Chapter V gives a bird’s-eye-view on the prose and drama written by the two poets.