The laser powder deposition (LPD) process is an area of laser material processing that has received much attention in the past three decades. This process has different applications such as rapid manufacturing, surface modification, and repairing high value components. Many attempts have been made to modify and promote the LPD process from the early stages of the process development. However, subjects such as connecting microstructural evolutions back to the process parameters, improving the buildup quality, reducing the design-to-product time, and lowering the machine costs, are still under investigations. Responding to the above mentioned challenges, this book covers a multi-disciplinary study of the LPD process to describe: a) thermo-kinetic modeling of the process, b) thermo-structural modeling of the process, and c) the vibration-assisted LPD process. In the thermo-kinetic and -structural modeling, the focus is placed on predicting the phase transformation kinetics and residual stresses based on the process parameters. The vibration-assisted LPD process introduces the application of in-process vibration on improving the quality of the buildups made with the LPD process.