This study deals with the question how sustainable management of water and land tenure can contribute to lasting peace in Darfur. It is argued that progress in the peace process depends on advancing interrelated developments and would benefit of taking into account a number of criteria identified in the study. A basic factor to be addressed is the harmonization of traditional and state governance structures to provide the individual with the security of using land and water through well-defined rights. Only governance structures that are adapted to the particular needs of the stakeholders in Darfur can lead to sustainable management of the two most vital resources, land and water, in terms of distribution and adequate infrastructure. These management practices are needed to assure sus-tainable development, whereas the latter should, as an absolute requirement, be included in any comprehensive peace agreement that has the potential to lead to lasting peace in Darfur.